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Glossary


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420

A cultural term referring to cannabis, its consumption, or cannabis culture in a broader sense. It originates from a ritual of smoking cannabis as 4:20 in the afternoon. April the 20th (420) is considered an unofficial cannabis holiday when many enthusiasts meet to smoke.

a

Acapulco Gold

A famous strain of cannabis known for its orange, gold-like hairs and originating from the mountains of Western Mexico. This strain of cannabis has a legendary status and is associated with the counterculture movement of the 1960’s. It has a reputation as one of the finest strains, as if having one were akin finding a gold nugget.

Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations (ACMPR)

The Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations is the current regulatory framework for medical cannabis in Canada created and overseen by the Government of Canada. The ACMPR replaced the Medical Purposes Regulations (MMPR) on 24 August 2016. The system is designed to restrict access to medical cannabis and ensure patients who need it can only procure it from certified LIcensed Producers (LP).

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b

Beatnik

Beatniks were part of the Beat Generation, a 1950s American subculture in which cannabis figured prominently. This counter-cultural movement began in New York and got its name from renowned author Jack Kerouac. The beatniks’ acceptance of cannabis was the beginning of its journey into mainstream culture in North America.

Bhang

Bhang is an ancient way to prepare cannabis to be ingested through food or drink. It has been used since approximately 2000 B.C. in Indica, where it is still consumed during Hindu street festivals to this day.

BHO (Butane Hash Oil)

A hydrocarbon extract of cannabis made using butane as the solvent for extraction.

Bisabolol (α-bisabolol)

Bisabolol, also known as levomenol, is a terpene contained in some strains of cannabis.

Black market

The illicit underground economy of cannabis caused by prohibition. Conservative estimates put the size of the black market at $141 billion dollars per year, although it's difficult to come up with an accurate number because of its illicit nature. The black market is unregulated, meaning people who resort to buying black market cannabis don’t necessarily get consistent or quality cannabis like they would purchasing from a Licensed Producer (LP). Black market or shadow economy created by cannabis prohibition.

Blue Dream

This sativa-dominant hybrid strain of cannabis is a cross between blueberry and haze strains. It is sometimes called Blueberry haze and was created in Santa Cruz, California in the early 21st century.

Blunt

A type of joint made with a dried tobacco leaf, usually taken from a cigar. The cannabis is often mixed with tobacco then rolled in the dried tobacco leaves. Blunts are often favoured for their tendency to burn slowly.

Bong

A type of cannabis paraphernalia used to smoke cannabis. Bongs are made up of a hollow cylinder with some water in the base to filter the cannabis smoke and catch the ash once the cannabis is combusted. A hollow tube called a stem is inserted into the base so that one end is in the water inside the bong and the other is sticking out at an upward angle. A small glass or metal receptacle called a bowl is inserted into the top of the stem. To use a bong, cannabis is inserted into the bowl and the user sucks at the mouthpiece at the top of the bong while applying flame to the bowl.

Bud

The dried flowers of a cannabis plant which contain cannabinoids. Bud is also used as a slang term to refer to cannabis in general.

Budtender

A point of sale employee of a cannabis retail outlet, typically a dispensary. Budtenders are common in the United States, where retail cannabis locations are permitted under medical cannabis regulations. Less commonly, budtender refers to an employee at a cannabis lounge.

Buzz

Slang term for the pleasant sensation produced by the psychoactive cannabinoids contained in medical cannabis.

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c

Cannabidiol (CBD)

One of at least 113 cannabinoids found in cannabis and the second most well-known cannabinoid after THC. Cannabidiol can account for up to 40% of a cannabis plant’s extract.

Cannabinoid

A type of chemical compound found in cannabis which affects cannabinoid receptors in the human body. 113 unique cannabinoids have been discovered to occur naturally in cannabis, each producing different effects. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabinol (CBN). Cannabidiol (CBD) are among the most common and well-studied cannabinoids.

Cannabinoid Receptors

Naturally occurring receptors which are located throughout the human body as part of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), a system which has been linked to a number of physiological processes including mood, pain sensation, appetite, and memory. The two types of known cannabinoid receptors are called CB₁ and CB₂ and are located mainly in the brain and immune system.

Cannabinol (CBN)

A mildly psychoactive substance found in cannabis, abbreviated CBN. CBN is chemically similar to another common cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD).

Cannabis

The general scientific term for the cannabis genus of plants which includes three species of flowering plants: cannabis sativa, cannabis indica, and cannabis ruderalis. All three species can be used to produce medical cannabis, although pure cannabis ruderalis is not often used for medical purposes because of its low concentrations of THC.

Cannabis Culture

A diverse social atmosphere surrounding cannabis and the consumption of cannabis or hemp products, whether for medical or recreational purposes. Cannabis subcultures past and present include:

  • beatniks
  • cannabis consumption
  • hippie
  • hipster (1940s and contemporary)
  • Rastafarian culture

Cannabis Extracts

Products which are derived from dried cannabis flowers and include cannabinoids, often in high concentrations. Cannabis extracts include:

  • tincture of cannabis
  • hashish
  • hash oil
  • kief
  • concentrates
    • honey oil
    • live resin
    • shatter
    • wax

Cannabis Flower Essential Oil

An oil with little or no psychoactive properties extracted from the cannabis plant which is sometimes referred to hemp seed oil, or hemp oil. Hemp essential oil is most commonly used as flavouring for foods or as a scent in cosmetics, candles, soaps, and perfumes. It is produced through steam distillation of the flowers and leaves of a cannabis sativa plant.

Cannabis Paraphernalia

Accessories for consuming or otherwise using cannabis and/or its extracts. Common cannabis paraphernalia includes:

  • bong
  • vaporizer
  • grinder
  • rolling papers

Cannabis Ruderalis

The scientific term for the ruderalis species of cannabis. Cannabis Ruderalis can be identified by its narrow leaves and sparsely branched, shorter stem. This species of cannabis is not used for recreational or medical purposes because it does not contain high enough levels of cannabinoids.

Cannabis Smoking

A method of using cannabis which involves combusting the dried cannabis flowers or extracts then inhaling the smoke which is released. Common implements used for smoking cannabis include joints, pipes, and bongs.

Cannabis Spirituality

The use of cannabis in a spiritual or religious context. Practices include some branches of Modern Paganism and the Rastafarian movement.

Cannabis Strains

Either hybrid or pure variety of the Cannabis genus of plants including cannabis sativa, cannabis indica, or cannabis ruderalis. There are hundreds of pure and hybrid strains of cannabis. Some of the most well-known strains include OG Kush, Skunk, and Acapulco Gold.

Cannabis Tea

A cannabis-infused tea which can be made in a variety of ways. A cannabis tea can be made by steeping cannabis leaves in hot water, although this mixture isn’t psycho active because most cannabinoids aren’t water soluble. To retain the cannabinoids, the tea must contain fat and can be taken as a chain-type tea. Alternatively, a cannabis tincture attained through alcohol-based extraction can added to the tea.

Canvas (Material)

A highly-durable, woven fabric which was once made of hemp but is now made from linen or cotton.

Caryophyllene (β-caryophyllene)

Caryophyllene is a terpene found in cannabis which creates an earthy, woody aroma which is comparable to pepper.

Charas

A hand-made type of hashish made from cannabis resin. Charas originates in India and Pakistan but is also made in Nepal and Jamaica.

Cherry

A Slang term for the ember which burns at the end of a lit joint.

Chillum (Pipe)

A straight, clay pipe originating in India where it was traditionally used by hindu monks for smoking cannabis.

Chronic

A popular slang term for cannabis originating from the cannabis culture on the West Coast of the United States.

Cola

A term used to describe the bud sites which are growing tightly together. In plant physiology, the term refers to the top-most bud of a plant.

Concentrates

Highly-concentrated cannabis extracts which contain cannabinoids extracted from cannabis by dissolving the plant into a solvent. Cannabis concentrate products include live resin, shatter, hash oil, and budder. Concentrates are made with cannabinoids extracted from cannabis, typically with hydrocarbon solvents or supercritical CO2. The consistency and method of manufacture determine how a cannabis concentrate is classified.

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d

Dabbing

A modern method for smoking cannabis concentrates and extracts which involves using a dab rig. A dab is a dose of concentrate inhaled through a dab rig.

Dab Rig

A device used for taking dabs of cannabis concentrate. A dab rig is similar to a bong, but instead of a bowl and stem it has a nail which is often made of titanium, glass, quartz, or a material which can be heated to extreme temperatures without being damaged.

Dank

A slang term used to denote especially potent or high quality cannabis.

Decarboxylation

The process of removing a carboxyl ring or group from a cannabinoid. Every type of cannabinoid contained in a raw cannabis plant contains this carboxyl. Removing the carboxyl ring effects different cannabinoids in different way. For example, when the carboxyl is removed from the non-psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) it is converted into THC, a cannabinoid which is psychoactive.

Decriminalization

Changing legislation to reduce criminal penalties related to consumption or possession of cannabis. Decriminalization indicates a social change moving towards a tolerant view of cannabis.

Doobie

A term to describe a joint made popular throughout the 60’s and 70’s.

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e

Edibles

Edibles, sometimes referred to as medibles when used for medical purposes, are edible products which are infused with cannabis extracts. Edibles have a slower onset than smoking or vaporizing since the body must first digest the food or drink. The effects of edibles can last longer and come on stronger than the effects of other delivery methods. The most common cannabis edibles are baked goods. Other examples of cannabis edibles include drinks, savory food, and even coffee. More and more products are becoming available as the industry grows.

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f

Flowers

The part of the cannabis plant which are harvested and dried to be used as medicine. Dried flowers can be smoked or vaporized or go through solvent extraction and be used to produce cannabis concentrates or extracts. Cannabis flowers have a sticky, hairy appearance before they are harvested and dried. Flowers will produce seeds if they are fertilized by a male plant. If they are not fertilized, cannabis flowers will continue producing the resin which contains cannabinoids.

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g

Ganja

A slang term for cannabis. The term is thought to originate in India, specifically from the region around the Ganges River where cannabis grew naturally.

Grass

A slang term for cannabis originating in the 60’s.

Grinder

A tool used to twist and break apart dried cannabis flowers before they are consumed. Grinders are often made of metal and are comprised of two circular halves which fit together and have a hollow space in between. The space is filled with sharp points which break the cannabis apart when it is inserted and the two halves of the grinder are twisted in opposite directions.

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h

Hashish

An extracted cannabis product made from cannabis resin. Hashish, sometimes abbreviated to hash, is created by compressing trichomes from the cannabis plant. Hashish contains cannabinoids in higher concentrations than dried cannabis flowers. Hashish is either smoked on its own in a pipe or mixed with tobacco or cannabis and smoked in a joint.

Hash oil

An oleoresin produced through solvent extraction of cannabis or hashish. Hash oil takes the form of a thick, resinous liquid with a strong scent which remains after the solvent is filtered and evaporated.

Head Shop

A store which carries goods related to cannabis culture.

Hemp

A species of cannabis sativa which is grown for the use of the products which can be derived from it. It can be refined into a variety of products including textiles, paper, rope, beauty products, insulation and more. Hemp was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fibre and is also one of the fastest growing plants. Commercial cultivation of hemp for industrial purposes is permitted in Canada with authorization from Health Canada.

Hempcrete

A bio-composite material used for construction and/or insulation. Hempcrete is made up of mixture of hemp hurds and lime.

Hemp Hurds

An agricultural product derived from hemp, sometimes called hemp wood or shives. Hemp hurds are made by breaking the woody inner part of the hemp stalk and separating it from the fiber. They can be used in a variety of textile applications.

Hemp Juice

A cold-pressed drink which is not psychoactive and is made by pressing cannabis leaves and flowers.

Hemp Milk

A non-psychoactive plant milk made from cannabis seeds soaked in water and ground up to produce a creamy, nutty liquid.

Hemp Oil

An oil produced by cold-pressing cannabis seeds. Hemp oil is not psychoactive but is used by some as a nutritional supplement.

Hemp Protein

A protein contained in hemp seeds. Hemp protein is made up of 3 types of protein and can be extracted and used to make protein products like protein powder.

High

Slang term used to describe the sensation of being under the influence of cannabis.

Hit

A slang term for a dose of cannabis taken from a smoking implement or vaporizer.

Homegrown

A term for cannabis grown by an amateur grower at their home or somewhere other than an dedicated cannabis growing facility.

Humulene (α-humulene or α-caryophyllene)

A naturally-occurring monocyclic sesquiterpene. The odour produced by humulene has been described as woody and earthy, similar to the profile of whiskey or tobacco.

Hybrid Cannabis

A strain of cannabis which is a cross between different strains of cannabis. Hybrid strains of cannabis are typically bred to combine the desired characteristics of the original strains.

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i

Indica

The scientific term for the indica species of the cannabis plant. This species can be distinguished visually by its broad leaves and shorter stalk with dense branches. Indica plants originate from Asia and the Middle East.

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j

Jay

Slang term for a joint.

Joint

A cannabis cigarette made by rolling cannabis in rolling paper.

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k

Kief

Cannabis trichomes which accumulate at the bottom of cannabis containers. Kief, also spelled Keef or Kif can also be sifted loose from dry cannabis flowers with a screen or sieve.

Kush

A type of cannabis indica bred from cannabis strains which originate in the Hindu Kush mountain range which covers North-Western India, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Kush is often associated with highly-potent, very high quality cannabis.

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l

Legalization

The cultural movement or legislative act of legalizing cannabis.

Licensed Producer (LP)

A Canadian company licensed by the Federal Government to cultivate and sell medical cannabis to patients registered under the ACMPR.

Limonene

A cyclic terpene which occurs naturally in cannabis. It carries a strong citrus aroma and a sharp flavour.

Linalool

A terpene contained in cannabis which carries a citrusy odour profile which has been compared to lavender.

Live resin

A type of cannabis hash oil extracted from fresh, undried cannabis which is flash frozen after being harvested then kept at a freezing temperature throughout the extraction process to extract more cannabinoids and terpenes. Making live resin require special equipment but maintains a strong, pure flavour profile.

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m

Marijuana/Marihuana

The general and legal term for the female cannabis plant and/or dried flowers. The term marijuana denotes female plants because their flowers contain high concentrations of cannabinoids while male plants do not. Canada’s Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and Health Canada documents related to the Act both use the alternate spelling - “Marihuana.”

Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR)

Regulations established by the Government of Canada in 2001 to manage medical cannabis access. MMAR allowed patients who were approved and had licenses to use cannabis as a treatment for the illness or condition for which they were approved to use it. The Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations (MMPR) replaced the MMAR on March 31, 2014. You can find the complete MMAR document on the Justice Laws website.

Marihuana for Medical Purposes Regulations (MMPR)

Regulations created by the Government of Canada to replace the Medical Marihuana Access Regulations (MMAR). Under MMPR, patients were required to acquire medical cannabis from a Licensed Producer (LP) authorized to cultivate and sell cannabis by the Government. To provide a patient with cannabis, an LP had to receive a registration form from the patient and a medical document from the patient’s doctor. The MMPR was repealed and replaced on August 26, 2016. For the full text of the MMPR visit the Justice Laws website.

Medical Cannabis

Cannabis cultivated according to Health Canada’s regulations by a Licensed Producer in a purpose-built facility which has passed all levels of inspection by Health Canada. Medical cannabis is used as part of a treatment for medical purposes. In documents related to Canada’s Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, “cannabis,” is referred to as, “Marihuana.”

Myrcene (β-myrcene)

Myrcene is a common terpene in cannabis which gives off a strong, musky earthen aroma.

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n

Nerolidol

A naturally-occuring sesquiterpene, also known as peruviol, found in certain strains of cannabis. This terpene has been known to carry floral notes of rose, citrus fruit, and apples.

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o

OG

A term used to describe a variety of strains which originates from OG Kush, a strain developed in Southern California. It is a common misconception that OG means “Original.” It actually stands for “Ocean Grown,” and refers to the location where the Kush was grown, near the ocean. OG strains are usually either grown by the ocean or contain genetics from the original OG Kush. Some people use OG to refer to quality or potent cannabis.

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p

Pinene (α-pinene)

A bicyclic monoterpene which occurs naturally in certain strains of cannabis. Pinene is also found in coniferous trees and carries a pine-y, tart aroma.

Pot

A slang term for cannabis which may be derived from the Mexican Spanish word, “potiguaya,” meaning, “marijuana leaves.” This term is in turn thought to be derived from, “potacion de guaya,” the name of a an alcoholic drink made up of marijuana leaves and buds steeped in wine or brandy.

Prohibition

A ban on cannabis cultivation or sale to prevent its use. Prohibition has been criticized by some who claim it contributes to the popularity of the black market.

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r

Reefer

A slang term for cannabis which is thought to be derived from the sailing term, “reefing,” which means rolling up a canvas sail, an act comparable to rolling a cannabis cigarette.

Rolling paper

A thin paper specially shaped for rolling cigarettes with cannabis or tobacco.

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s

Sativa

The scientific term for the sativa species of cannabis. The cannabis sativa plant has a tall stalk with sparse branches and long thin leaves. This species originates from Colombia, Mexico, Thailand, and South-East Asia.

Shatter

A general term for cannabis concentrates which have a brittle, amber-coloured appearance and are made up of THC and CBD extracted from cannabis. These concentrates get their name from the way they break apart like a pane of glass. Shatter is typically consumed by dabbing.

Sinsemilla

A Spanish word meaning, “without seed,” which is used as a slang term for potent cannabis.

Smoking

A method of using cannabis which involves inhaling smoke produced by burning cannabis or cannabis extracts. Cannabis can be smoked through a variety of means including joints, bongs, and pipes.

Strain

A particular variety of a certain species of cannabis. Many strains of cannabis are bred to produce specific desired traits. Cannabis strains are named based on their effects, genetics, appearance, or place of origin.

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t

Terpenes

Terpenes create the odour and flavour of a cannabis strain. Different strains contain different terpene profiles. The terpene profile is one of the primary factors which differentiates strains. Some researching are studying the potential impact which terpenes have on how cannabinoid receptors interact with cannabinoids.

Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

A psychoactive substance found in cannabis. THC is the most well-known and principal cannabinoid in cannabis plants.

Tincture of Cannabis

An alcohol-based cannabis extract with high cannabinoid concentration. Tinctures can be flavoured and are often stored in a small glass bottle and administered with a dropper to allow users to administer small amounts. A dose of tincture is either taken by placing it directly under the tongue or by adding it to food or tea.

Topical Cannabis Products

A topical balm, cream, or lotion which contains cannabinoids extracted from the cannabis plant. Topical products are applied directly to the skin which then absorbs the cannabinoids.

Trichomes

Fine outgrowths resembling tiny hairs which grow on cannabis flowers. Trichomes produce resin and create the cannabinoids contained in cannabis.

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v

Vape or Vaping

A way of consuming cannabinoids by vaporizing them and inhaling the vapor. Vaping is an alternative to smoking which does not involve inhaling smoke.

Vaporizer

A device used to consume cannabinoids from dried cannabis flowers, extracts, or concentrates.
A vaporizer works by heating a substance to a temperature at which the cannabinoids are vaporized so they can be inhaled.

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w

Wax

Another term for Butane Hash Oil (BHO), a cannabis concentrate which contains cannabinoids in high concentration.

Weed

A popular, contemporary slang term describing cannabis in general.

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